- Consider measles in patients with rash, fever, cough, coryza and/or conjunctivitis
- Testing is confirmed with a measles IgM, isolation of virus or nucleic acids
- Certain cases should be reported to the state health department
- Measles in generally an acute and self limiting disease
Patients with severe immunocompromised conditions can be considered for IV Ig (MultiCare response guidelines)
- Ensure adequate nutrition, hydration and supportive care
- Give vitamin A which can decrease severity of illness (0-6mo 50,000 IU, 6-12mo 100,000 IU, >1yr 200,00 IU) given on day 1, 2 and in 3 weeks.
- Treat fever with acetaminophen
- Evaluate for corneal abrasions / clouding and give topical antibiotics prn
- Assess and treat for concurrent secondary bacterial infections
- Families should be educated about spreading the disease
Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to serious complications and death. CDC evaluated cases reported by states from January 1 through May 23, 2014. A total of 288 confirmed measles cases have been reported to CDC, surpassing the highest reported yearly total of measles cases since elimination (220 cases reported in 2011). The large number of cases this year emphasizes the need for health-care providers to have a heightened awareness of the potential for measles in their communities and the importance of vaccination to prevent measles.
Confirmed measles cases in the United States are reported by state and local health departments to CDC using a standard case definition.
A measles case is considered confirmed if it is laboratory-confirmed or meets the clinical case definition (an illness characterized by a generalized rash lasting ≥3 days, a temperature of ≥101°F [≥38.3°C], and cough, coryza, and/or conjunctivitis) and is linked epidemiologically to a confirmed case.
Measles cases are laboratory confirmed if there is detection in serum of measles-specific immunoglobulin M, isolation of measles virus, or detection of measles virus nucleic acid from a clinical specimen.
Cases are considered imported if at least some of the exposure period (7–21 days before rash onset) occurred outside the United States and rash occurred within 21 days of entry into the United States, with no known exposure to measles in the United States during that time. An outbreak of measles is defined as a chain of transmission of three or more confirmed cases.
Patients with reported measles cases this year have ranged in age from 2 weeks to 65 years; 18 (6%) were aged <12 months, 48 (17%) were aged 1–4 years, 71 (25%) were aged 5–19 years, and 151 (52%) were aged ≥20 years. Forty-three (15%) were hospitalized, and complications have included pneumonia (five patients), hepatitis (one), pancytopenia (one), and thrombocytopenia (one). No cases of encephalitis and no deaths have been reported.
Measles cases have been reported from 18 states and New York City. Most cases were reported from Ohio (138), California (60), and New York City (26). Fifteen outbreaks have accounted for 227 (79%) of the 288 cases. The median outbreak size has been five cases (range: 3–138 cases). There is an ongoing outbreak involving 138 cases, occurring primarily among unvaccinated Amish communities in Ohio.
Of the 288 cases, 280 (97%) were associated with importations from at least 18 countries. The source of measles acquisition could not be identified for eight (3%) cases. Forty-five direct importations (40 U.S. residents returning from abroad and five foreign visitors) have been reported. Almost half (22 [49%]) of these importations were travelers returning from the Philippines, where a large outbreak has been occurring since October 2013. Imported cases were also associated with travel from other countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (seven cases), as well as countries in the WHO South-East Asia (eight), European (four), Americas (three), and Eastern Mediterranean (one) regions.
Most of the 288 measles cases reported this year have been in persons who were unvaccinated (200 [69%]) or who had an unknown vaccination status (58 [20%]); 30 (10%) were in persons who were vaccinated.
Health-care providers should maintain a high suspicion for measles among febrile patients with rash. Patients with clinical symptoms compatible with measles (febrile rash plus cough, coryza, and/or conjunctivitis), should be asked about recent travel abroad and contact with returning travelers, and their vaccination status should be verified.
Where possible, because of the high transmissibility of measles, patients with suspected measles should be promptly screened before entering waiting rooms and appropriately isolated (i.e., in an airborne isolation room or, if not available, in a separate room with the door closed), or have their office appointments scheduled at the end of the day to prevent exposure of other patients (4). To assist state and local public health departments with rapid investigation and control efforts to limit the spread of disease, suspected measles cases should be reported to local health departments immediately. State health departments should notify CDC about cases of measles within 24 hours of detection.
Measles update June, 2014 CDC MMWR